Geology and Geomorphology of Orkney

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Ballantyne, C. K., A. M. Hall, et al. 2007. Age and significance for former low-altitude corrie glaciers on Hoy, Orkney Islands. Scottish Journal of Geology 43: 1-8.

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Brown, J. F., 2002. The Geology and Landscape of Orkney In: O. D (Editor), The New Orkney Book.

Bull, I. D., Simpson, I. A., Dockrill, S. J. and Evershed, R. P., 1999. Organic geochemical evidence for the origin of ancient anthropogenic soil deposits at Tofts Ness, Sanday, Orkney. Organic Geochemistry, 30(7): 535-556.

Bunting, M. J. (1994). Environmental history and human impact in Orkney, Scotland, Ph.D thesis. Cambridge.

Bunting, M.J., 1995. Vegetation history of Orkney, Scotland: pollen records from two small basins in west Mainland. New Phytologist, 128: 771-792.

Bunting, M.J. 1996. Holocene vegetation and environment of Orkney. In The Quaternary of Orkney: Field Guide (ed. by A.M. Hall), pp. 20-29. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge.

Bunting, J. (1996). "The development of heathland in Orkney, Scotland: pollen records from Loch of Knitchen (Rousay) and Loch of Torness (Hoy)." The Holocene 6: 193-212.

Bunting, M. J., Tipping, R. & Downes, J. (2001) Anthropogenic pollen assemblages from a Bronze Age cemetery at Lingafjold, west Mainland, Orkney. Journal of Archaeological Science 28, 487-500.

Buttler, S. 1991. Steatite in the Norse North Atlantic. Acta Archaeologica. 61, 228-232.

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Cameron, T. D. J., M. S. Stoker, et al. (1987). "The history of Quaternary sedimentation in the UK sector of the North Sea basin." Journal of the Geological Society 144: 43-58.

Childe, V. G. (1931). Skara Brae. A Pictish Village in Orkney. London.

Clark, D. V. (1976). The Neolithic Village at Skara Brae, Orkney. Excavations 1972-3: An interim report. Edinburgh.

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Daniell, W., 1821. A voyage round Great Britain. Longman, Hurst, Rees and Brown,, London.

Davidson, D. A., D. D. Harkness, et al. (1986). "The formation of farm Mounds on the island of Sanday, Orkney." Geoarchaeology 1: 45-60.

Dec, T., 1992. Textural characteristics and interpretation of second-cycle, debris-flow-dominated alluvial fans (Devonian of Northern Scotland). Sedimentary Geology, 77(3-4): 269-296.

de la Vega-Leinert, A.C., Smith, D.E. and Jones, R.L., 2007. Holocene coastal environmental changes on the periphery of an area of glacio-isostatic uplift: an example from Scapa Bay, Orkney, UK. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22(8): 755-772.

Dockrill, S. J. (1993). The Human Palaeoecology of Sanday, Orkney, Bradford.

Dockrill, S. J., J. M. Bond, et al. (1994). Tofts Ness, Sanday, Orkney: an integrated study of a buried Orcadian landscape. Whither Environmental Archaeology? R. Luff and P. Rowley-Conwy. Oxbow Monograph 38: 115-132.

Dugmore, A.J., Larsen, G, and Newton, A.J. 1995 Seven tephra isochrones in Scotland The Holocene 5/3 257-266

Enfield, MA  and Coward, MP 1987. Structure of the West Orkney Basin, northern Scotland. J. Geol. Soc.London., 144: 871-883.

Evans, D. J. (1997). "Estimates of the eroded overburden and the Permian-Quaternary history of the area west of Orkney." Scottish Journal of Geology 33: 169-182.

Evans, D.J.A., Clark, C.D. and Mitchell, W.A., 2005. The last British Ice Sheet: A review of the evidence utilised in the compilation of the Glacial Map of Britain. Earth-Science Reviews, 70(3-4): 253-312.

Fenton, A. (1978). The Northern Isles: Orkney and Shetland. Edinburgh, John Donald.

Ferguson, D. M. (1988). Shipwrecks of Orkney, Shetland and the Pentland Firth. Newton Abbott, David and Charles.

Flinn, D. (1978). "The most recent glaciation of the Orkney-Shetland Channel and adjacent areas." Scottish Journal of Geology 14: 109-123.

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Godard, A., 1956. Problèmes morphologiques des Orcades. Norois, 9: 17-33.

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Hall, A. M., Ed. (1996). The Quaternary of Orkney. Cambridge, Quaternary Research Association.

Hansom, J.D. and Evans, D.J.A., 1995. The Old Man of Hoy. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 111: 172-174.

HESKETH, R.A.P. and UNDERHILL, J.R. 2002. The biostratigraphic calibration of the Scottish and Outer Moray Firth Upper Jurassic successions: a new basis for the correlation of Late Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian Humber Group reservoirs in the North Sea Basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology 19, 541-562.

Hillier S. and Marshall J. E. A., 1992. Organic maturation, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation in the Orcadian Basin, Scotland., Journal of the Geological Society 149: 491-502.

Holford, S.P. et al., 2010. Multiple post-Caledonian exhumation episodes across NW Scotland revealed by apatite fission-track analysis. Journal of the Geological Society, 167: 675-694.

Huntley, J. P. 1994. Some botanical aspects of a Norse economy in northern Scotland. Botanical Journal of Scotland. 46, 538-541.

Irwin, H. and Meyer, T., 1990. Lacustrine organic facies. A biomarker study using multivariate statistical analysis. Organic Geochemistry, 16(1-3): 197-210.

Janaway, T.M. and Parnell, J., 1989. Carbonate production within the Orcadian basin, northern Scotland: A petrographic and geochemical study. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 70(1-3): 89-105.

Johnson, H., P. C. Richards, et al. (1993). United Kingdon Offshore regional report: the geology of the northern North Sea. London, H. M. S. O.

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Keatinge, T. H. and J. H. Dickson (1979). "Mid-Flandrian changes in vegetation on Mainland Orkney." New Phytologist 82: 585-612.

Kimbell, G.S., Gatliff, R.W., Ritchie, J.D., Walker, A.S.D. and Williamson, J.P., 2004. Regional three-dimensional gravity modelling of the NE Atlantic margin. 16(2): 259-278.

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Laing, S., 1877. Glacial geology of Orkney and Shetland. Nature, 16: 418-419.

Lamb, R. 1993. Kirkwall. In Batey, C. E., Jesch, J. and Morris, C. D. Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic in the Viking Age. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 44-49.

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Marshall, J. E. A. and Allen, K. C., 1982. Devonian Miospore Assemblages from Fair Isle, Shetland. Palaeontology, 25(APR): 277-312.

Marshall, J. E. A., Brown, J. F. and Hindmarsh, S., 1985. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Devonian Rocks of the Orcadian Basin. Scottish Journal of Geology, 21: 301-320.

Marshall, J. E. A., Haughton, P. D. W. and Hillier, S. J., 1994. Vitrinite Reflectivity and the Structure and Burial History of the Old Red Sandstone of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, 151: 425-438.

Marshall, J. E. A., Haughton, P. D. W. and Hillier, S. J., 1995. Discussion on Vitrinite Reflectivity and the Structure and Burial History of the Old Red Sandstone of the Midland Valley - Reply. Journal of the Geological Society, 152: 568-569.

Marshall, J. E. A., Rogers, D.A. and Whiteley, M. J., 1996. Devonian marine incursions into the Orcadian Basin, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, 153: 451-466.

Marshall, J. E. A. and Astin, T. R., 1996. An ecological control on the distribution of the Devonian fish Asterolepis. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 33(3): 133-144.

Marshall, J. E. A., 1996. Rhabdosporites langii, Geminospora lemurata and Contagisporites optivus: an origin for heterospory within the progymnosperms. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 93(1-4): 159-189.

Marshall, J. E. A., 1998. The recognition of multiple hydrocarbon generation episodes: an example from Devonian lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Inner Moray Firth, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, 155: 335-352.

Marshall, J. E. A. and Fletcher, T. P., 2002. Middle Devonian (Eifelian) spores from a fluvial dominated lake margin in the Orcadian Basin, Scotland. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 118(1-4): 195-209.

May, V.J, and Hansom J.D. 2003. Coastal Geomorphology of Great Britain, Geological Conservation Review Series No. 28, Peterborough. Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 737pp.

Moar, N. T. (1969). "Two pollen diagrams from the Mainland, Orkney Island." New Phytologist 68: 201-208.

Morton, A., Hallsworth, C. and Chalton, B., 2004. Garnet compositions in Scottish and Norwegian basement terrains: a framework for interpretation of North Sea sandstone provenance. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21(3): 393-410.

Muir, R. O. and J. M. Ridgway. 1975 Sulphide mineralisation of the continental Devonian sediments of Orkney (Scotland), Mineralium Deposita, 10, 205 - 215

Murchison, R. I. 1859. On the succession of the older rocks in the northernmost counties of Scotland; with some observations on the Orkney and Shetland Islands., Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 15: 353-417.

Mykura, W. (1976). British Regional Geology: Orkney and Shetland. Edinburgh, Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



Naidu, R. Mitchell, B. D. and MacKenzie, R. C. (1994) Effect of drainage on characteristics of some soils of the Orkney Islands. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 32, 519-534.

Newman, M.J. and Den Blaauwen, J.L., 2008. New information on the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus gunni. Scottish Journal of Geology, 44(1): 89-91.

Parnell, J. and Swainbank, I. 1985. Galena mineralization in the Orcadian Basin, Scotland: Geological and isotopic evidence for sources of lead, Mineralium Deposita 20, 50 - 56

Parnell, J. and Janaway, T., 1990. Sulphide-mineralised algal breccias in a Devonian evaporitic lake system, Orkney, Scotland. Ore Geology Reviews, 5(5-6): 445-460.

Parnell, J., Carey, P. and Monson, B., 1998. Timing and temperature of decollement on hydrocarbon source rock beds in cyclic lacustrine successions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 140(1-4): 121-134.

Peach, B. N. and J. Horne, 1880. The Old Red Sandstone of Orkney. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh., 5: 329-342

Peach, B. N. and J. Horne (1880). "The glaciation of the Orkney Islands." Q. J. Geol. Soc. 36: 648-663.

Peach, B. N. and J. Horne (1893). "On the occurrence of shelly boulder clay in North Ronaldshay, Orkney." Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society 6: 309-313.

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Rae, D. A. (1976). Aspects of glaciation in Orkney, Liverpool.

Ritchie, A. (1985). Exploring Scotland's Heritage. Orkney and Shetland. Edinburgh, H. M. S. O.

Roberts, N., 1998. The Holocene. Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Rogers, D.A., Marshall, J. E. A. and Astin, T. R., 1989. Devonian and Later Movements on the Great Glen Fault System, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, 146: 369-372.

Saxon, J. 1975. The Fossil Fishes of the North of Scotland. Caithness Books, Thurso.

Saxton, W. I. and Hopwood, A. T., 1919. On a Scandinavian erratic from the Orkneys. Geological Magazine, 56: 273-274.

Sejrup, H. P., I. Aarseth, et al. (1987). "Quaternary stratigraphy of the Fladen area, central North Sea: A multidisciplinary study." Journal of Quaternary Science 2: 35-58.

Sejrup, H.P., Nygård, A., Hall, A.M. and Haflidason, H., 2009. Middle and Late Weichselian (Devensian) glaciation history of south western Norway, North Sea and eastern UK. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 370-380.

Selley, R.C., 1992. Petroleum seepages and impregnations in Great Britain. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 9(3): 226-244.

Seranne M. 1992 Devonian extensional tectonics versus Carboniferous inversion in the northern Orcadian basin. Journal of the Geological Society, 149, 27-37

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Simpson, I. A. (1993). "The chronology of anthropogenic soil formation in Orkney." Scottish Geographical Magazine 109: 4-11.

Simpson, I. A. 1997. Relict properties of anthropogenic deep top soils as indicators of infield management in Marwick, west Mainland, Orkney. Journal of Archaeological Science. 24, 365-380.

Sommerville, A.A., Sanderson, D.C.W., Hansom, J.D. and Housley, R.A., 2001. Luminescence dating of aeolian sands from archaeological sites in Northern Britain: a preliminary study. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(5-9): 913-919.

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Storetvedt, K.M., Carmichael, C.M., Hayatsu, A. and Palmer, H.C., 1978. Palaeomagnetism and K/Ar results from the Duncansby volcanic neck, NE Scotland: superimposed magnetizations, age of igneous activity, and tectonic implications. Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors, 16(4): 379-392.

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Storetvedt, K.M. and Ottera, L.E., 1988. Palaeozoic reconfigurations of north Scotland based on palaeomagnetic results from Orkney dykes. Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors, 52(3-4): 243-255.

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TOMASSO, M., UNDERHILL, J.R., HODGKINSON, R.A. and YOUNG, M.J. 2008. Structural styles and depositional architecture in the Triassic of the Ninian and Alwyn North fields: Implications for basin development and prospectivity in the Northern North Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology 25, 588-605.

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