A selection of references on fossil fish mainly dealing with the Middle Old Red of Scotland.

Placoderms (Arthrodira and Antiarchs)

1.      Denison, R. H. 1978. Placodermi, in: Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Vol. 2, Ed. Schultze, H.-P., Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1-128, figs. 1-94.

2.      Desmond, A. J. 1974. On the coccosteid arthrodire Millerosteus minor. Zool. Journ. Linnean Soc. London, 54, 277-298, figs. 1-11, 1 pl.

3.      Heintz, A. 1933. Revision of the Estonian Arthrodira, part 1, family Homostiidae. Eesti Lood. Arhiiv., X, 180-290, figs. 1-50, pls. I-XXIII.

4.      Heintz, A. 1938. Notes on Arthrodira. Norsk geol. Tidss., 18, 1-37, 7 figs, 3 pls.

5.      Heintz, A. 1968. The spinel plate in Homosteus and Dunkleosteus, 145-151, figs. 1-2. Nobel Symp. 4, ed. Orvig, T. Interscience, London. Pp. 539.

6.      Hemmings, S. K. 1978. The Old Red Sandstone antiarchs of Scotland: Pterichthyodes and Microbrachius. Palaeontogr. Soc. [Monogr.], 1-64, figs. 1-36, pls. 1-9.

7.      Mark-Kurik, E. 1992. The inferognathal in the Middle Devonian arthrodire Homosteus. Lethaia, 25, 173-178, figs. 1-6.

8.      Mark-Kurik, E. 1993. Remarks on the trunk-shield structure in Homosteus (Placodermi). Proc. Estonian Acad. Scien. Geol., 42, 176-180, 1 fig., pls. I, II.

9.      Miles, R. S. 1968. Features of placoderm diversification and the evolution of the Arthrodire feeding mechanism. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 68, 124-165, figs. 1-10.

10. Miles, R. S. and Westoll, T. S. 1963. Two new genera of coccosteid Arthrodira from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, and their stratigraphical distribution. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXV, 179-208, figs. 1-11, pls. I-III.

11. Miles, R. S. and Westoll, T. S. 1968. The placoderm fish Coccosteus cuspidatus Miller ex Agassiz from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland part I. Descriptive morphology. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 67, 373-476, figs. 1-51, pls. I-XII.

12. Stensio, E. A. 1959. On the pectoral fin and shoulder girdle of the arthrodires. Kung. Sven. Veten. Handl., 8, 229pp, 75 figs, 25 pls.

13. On the placoderm head

14. Traquair, R. H. 1889. Homosteus Asmuss, compared with Coccosteus, Agassiz. Geol. Mag., (3) VI, 1-8, pl.

15. Traquair, R. H. 1889. Homosteus Asmuss, compared with Coccosteus, Agassiz. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., X, 47-57, pl. III.

16. Traquair, R. H. 1890. On the structure of Coccosteus decipiens Agassiz. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., X, pl. X.

17. Traquair, R. H. 1890. On the supposed pectoral limb in Coccosteus decipiens. Geol. Mag. (3) 7, 235.

18. Traquair, R. H. 1908. On fossil fish remains collected by J. S. Flett, M. A., D. sc., from the Old Red Sandstone of Shetland. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XLVI, 321-329, 3 figs., pls. I, II.

19. Traquair, R. H. 1894-1904 Part II- The Asterolepidae, in : A monograph of the fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Britain. Printed for the Palaeontographical society.

20. Watson, D. M. S. 1908. Coccosteus minor, Hugh Miller, in the Old Red Sandstone of Dalcross, Inverness-shire. Geol. Mag., 5 (9), 431.

21. Watson, D. M. S. 1931. On three new species of fish from the Old Red Sandstone of Orkney and Shetland. Summ. Prog. Geol. Surv, 157-165, figs. 1-5, pl. IV.

22. Watson, D. M. S. 1961. Some additions to our knowledge of antiarchs. Palaeontology, 4, 210-220, figs. 1-3.

23. Woodward, A. S. 1891. Note on some dermal plates of Homosteus from the Old Red Sandstone of Caithness. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 198-201, figs. 1-4.


1.      Beland, P. and Arsenault, M. 1984. Scaumenellisation de l'Acanthodii Triazeugacanthus affinis (Whiteaves) de lamformation d'Escuminac (Devonian superieur de Miguasha, Quebec): revision du Scaumenella mesacanthi Graham-Smith. Can. Journ. Earth Scien., 22, 514-524, figs. 1-12.

2.      Denison, R. H. 1979. Acanthodii, in: Handbook of Paleoichthyology, ed. vol. 5, H.-P. Schultze, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1-62, figs. 1-35.

3.      Egerton, P. 1860. British Fossils; Acanthodes peachi, Acanthodes mitchelli, Climatius scutiger and Diplacanthus gracilis. Mem. Geol. Surv. Dex. X, 57-71, 59, pl. VI-IX.

4.       M'Coy, F. 1848. On some new ichthyolites from the Scotch Old Red Sandstone. Ann. Mag. Nat. His. (2) II, 297-312, 3 figs.

5.      Miles, R. S. 1970. Remarks on the vertebral column and caudal fin of acanthodian fishes. Lethaia, 3, 343-362, figs. 1-8.

6.      Miles, R. S. 1973. Articulated acanthodian fishes from the Old Red Sandstone of England, with a review of the structure and evolution of the acanthodian shoulder-girdle. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. His.) Geol., 24, 111-213, figs. 1-43, pls. 1-21.

7.      Traquair, R. H. 1893. Description of a selachian spine found by Mr. W. Tait Kinnear in the Old Red Sandstone of Caithness. Trans. Edinburgh geol. Soc., VI, 207-208, pl. VIII.

8.      .Traquair, R, H. 1894. On a new species of Diplacanthus, with remarks on the acanthodian shoulder-girdle. Geol. Mag., (4) I, 254-257.

9.      Valiukevicius, J. 1998. Acanthodians and zonal stratigraphy of Lower and Middle Devonian in East Baltic and Byelorussia. Palaeontographica, 248, 1-53, figs. 1-23, pls. 1-17.

10. Watson, D. M. S. 1937. The acanthodian fishes. Phil, Trans. Roy. Soc. London., B 228, 49-146, figs. 1-25, pls. 5-14.


1. Gardiner, B. G. 1984. The relationships of the palaeoniscid fishes, a review based on new specimens of Mimia and Moythomasia from the Upper Devonian of Western Australia. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol.) 37, 173-428, figs. 1-147, pls. 1-5.

2.      Lehman, J.-P. 1947 Description de quelgues exemplaires de Cheirolepis canadensis (Whiteaves). K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., 24, 1-40, figs. 1-22, pls. 1-9.

3.      Orvig, T. 1978. Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Birgeria and Scanilepis. Zoll. Scripta, 7, 33-56, figs. 1-35.

4.      Orvig, T. 1978. Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Boreosomus, Plegmolepis and Gyrolepis. Zool. Scripta, 7, 125-44, figs. 1-29.

5.      Orvig, T. 1978. Microstructure and growth of the dermal skeleton in fossil actinopterygian fishes: Nephrotus and Colobodus, with remarks on the dentition in other forms. Zool. Scripta, 7, 297-326, figs. 1-67.

6.      Pearson, D. M. and Westoll, T. S. 1979. The Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis Agassiz. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 70, 337-399, figs. 1-22, pls. I-IV.

7.      Powrie, J. 1867. On the genus Cheirolepis, from the Old Red Sandstone. Geol. Mag., IV, 147-152, 2 figs.

8.      Traquair, R. H. 1875. On the structure and systematic position of the genus Cheirolepis. Ann. Mag. Nat. His., (4) XV, 237 - 248, pl. XVII.

9.      Watson, D. M. S. 1925. The structure of certain palaeoniscids and the relationships of that group with other bony fish. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, LIV, 815-870, figs. 1-30, pls. I, II.



1.      Ahlberg, P. E. 1989. Paired fin skeletons and the relationships of the fossil group Porolepiformes (Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii). Zoo. Journ. Linn. Soc. London, 96, 119-166, figs. 1-16.

2.      Ahlberg, P. E. 1989. The anatomy and phylogeny of the porolepiform fishes, with special reference to Glyptolepis. PhD thesis (unpublished), Univ. Cambridge.

3.      Ahlberg, P. 1992. Coelacanth fins and evolution. Nature, 358, 459, Fig. 1.

4.      Ahlberg, P. E. and Johanson, Z. 1998. Osteolepiformes and the ancestry of tetrapods. Nature, 395, 792-794, figs. 1-4.

5.      Andrews, S. M. and Westoll, T. S. 1970. The postcranial skeleton of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteves. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 68, 207-329, figs. 1-32, pls. 1-5.

6.      Andrews, S. M. and Westoll, T. S. 1970. The postcranial skeleton of rhipidistian fishes excluding Eusthenopteron. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 68, 391-489, figs. 1-23, pls. 1-15.

7.      Belles-Isles, M. 1992. The modes of swimming of sarcopterygians. Akademia, 1, Tallinn, 117-130, figs. 1-6.

8.      Borgen, U. 1983. Homologizations of skull roofing bones between tetrapods and osteolepiform fishes. Palaeontology, 26, 735-753, figs. 1-7.

9.      Borgen, U. J. 1989. Cosmine resorption structures on three osteolepid jaws and their biological significance. Lethaia, 22, 413-424, figs. 1-5.

10. Borgen, U. J. 1992. The function of the cosmine pore canal system. In: Fossil fishes as living animals, (ed. E. Mark-Kurik), Academia 1, Tallinn, 141-150, figs. 1-3.

11. Campbell, K. S. W. & Barwick, R. E. 2001. Diabolepis and its relationship to the Dipnoi. Journ. Vert. Paleontol., 21, 227-241, figs. 1-7.

12. Chang, M.-M. 1991. Head exoskeleton and shoulder girdle of Youngolepis, in: Early vertebrates and related problems of evolutionary biology, ed. Chang, M.-M., Liu, Y. H. and Zhang, G. R., Science Press, Beijing. 355-378, figs. 1-16, pls. 1-6.

13. Chang, M.-M. and Min, Z. 1993. A new Middle Devonian osteolepid from Qujing, Yunnan. Mem. Ass. Australas. Palaeontols, 15, 183-198, figs. 1-14.

14. Chang, M.-M. & Smith, M. 1992. Is Youngolepis a porolepiform? Journ. Vert. Paleon., 12, 294-312, figs. 1-11.

15. Chang, M.-M. and Yu, X. 1997. Reexamination of the relationship of Middle Devonian osteolepids-fossil characters and their interpretations. Am. Mus. Novitates, 3189, 1-20, figs. 1-4.

16. Fan, J. H. 1992. A new species of Thursius from Wuding, Yunnan. Vertbrata PalAsiatica, 30, 195-209, figs. 1-8, pls. I-III. Photocopy. (In Chinese with English summary).

17. Goodrich, E. S. 1919. Restorations of the head of Osteolepis. Zool. Journ. Linnean. Soc. London, XXXIV, 181-188, 6 figs.

25. Jarvik, E. 1942. On the structure of the snout of crossopterygians and lower gnathostomes in general. Zool. Bidr. Upps., 21, 235-675, figs. 1-87, pls. 1-17.

26. Jarvik, E. 1944. On the dermal bones, sensory canals and pit -lines of the skull of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves, with some remarks on E. save-soderberghi Jarvik. K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., (3) 21 (3), 1-48, figs. 1-19.

27. Jarvik, E. 1948. On the morphology and taxonomy of the Middle Devonian osteolepid fishes of Scotland. K. Svenska. VetenskAkad. Handl., (3) 25, 1-301, figs. 1-85, pls. 1-37.

28. Jarvik, E. 1949. On the Middle Devonian Crossopterygians from the Hornelen Field in Western Norway. Arbok. Univ. Bergen, 1948 (Naturv.r.), 1-48, figs. 1-11, pls. 1-8.

29. Jarvik, E. 1950. Middle Devonian vertebrates from Canning Land and Wegeners Halvo (East Greenland), Part II. Crossopterygii. Medd. om Gron., 96, 1-131, figs. 1-37, pls. 1-24.

30. Jarvik, E. 1950. Note on Middle Devonian crossopterygians from the eastern part of Gauss Halvo, East Greenland. Medd. Om Gron., 149, 20pp, figs. 1-3.

31. Jarvik, E. 1950. On some osteolepiform crossopterygians from the Upper Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., 2, 1-35, figs. 1-10, pls. I-X.

32. Jarvik, E. 1954. On the visceral skeleton in Eusthenopteron with a discussion of the parasphrnoid and palatoquadrate in fishes. K. Svenska VetenskAkad. Handl., (4) 5, 1-104, figs. 1-47. Paperback.

33. Jarvik, E. 1972. Middle and Upper Devonian Porolepiformes from East Greenland with special reference to Glyptolepis groenlandica n.sp. and a discussion on the structure of the head in the Porolepiformes. Medd. om Gron., 187, 1-307, figs. 1-108, pls. 1-35.

34. Jarvik, E. 1985. Devonian osteolepiform fishes from East Greenland. Med. om, Gron., Geosci., 13, 1-52, figs. 1-38. Paperback.

35. Long, J. A. 1985. The structure and relationships of a new osteolepiform fish from the Late Devonian of Victoria, Australia. Alcheringa, 9, 1-22, figs. 1-14.

36. Miller, H. 1841. The Old Red Sandstone; Or, New walks in an Old Field. J. Johnstone, Edinburgh.

37. Miller, H. 1849. Footprints of the creator; Or, the Asterolepis of Stromness. Johnstone & Hunter, London.

38. Min, Z. and Schultze, H.-P. 1997. The oldest sarcopterygian fish. Lethaia, 30, 293-304, figs. 1-9.

39. Min, Z., Yu, X. and Janvier, P. 1999. A primitive fossil fish sheds light on the origin of bony fishes. Nature, 397, 607-610, figs. 1-4.

40. Pander 1860…….

41. Smith, J. L. B. 1939. A living coelacanthid fish from South Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. South Africa, 28, 1-106, figs. 1-19. pls. 1-44.

42. Thomson, K. S. 1966. Glyptolepis from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Postilla, 99, 1-10, figs. 1-5, pl. 1, 2.

43. Thomson, K. S. 1967. Notes on the relationships of the rhipidistian fishes and the ancestry of tetrapods. Journ. Paleontology, 41, 660-674, figs. 1-3.

44. Thomson, K. S. 1972. New evidence on the evolution of the paired fins of Rhipidistia and the origin of the tetrapod limb, with description of a new genus of Osteolepidae. Postilla, 157, 1-7, figs. 1-5.

45. Traquair, R, H. 1875. On the structure and affinities of Tristichopterus alatus Egerton. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XXVII, 383-396, pl. 32. Reprint. Signed by the author to Professor Macalister.

46. Westoll, T. S. 1936. On the structures of the dermal ethmoid shield of Osteolepis. Geol. Mag., LXXIII, 157-171, figs. 1-4, pls. I, II.

47. Newman, M. J. and J. L. den Blaauwen (2007). "The synonymy of the Scottish Devonian osteolepid fish Thursius macrolepidotus." Scottish Journal of Geology 43: 101-106.



1.      Campbell, K. S. W. and Barwick, R. E. 1983. Early evolution of dipnoan dentitions and a new genus Speonesydrion. Mem. Ass. Australas. Palaeontol., 1, 17-49, 23 figs.

2.   Forster- Cooper, C. 1937. The Middle Devonian fish fauna of Achanarras. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 59, 223-239, figs. 1-10, pls. I-VIII.

2.      Miles, R. S. 1977. Dipnoan (lungfish) skulls and the relationships of the group: a study based on new species from the Devonian of Australia. Zool. Journ. Linnean Soc. London, 1-328, figs. 1-158.

3.      Smith, M. M. 1976. The microstructure of the dentition and dermal ornament of three dipnoans from the Devonian of western Australia: A contribution towards dipnoan inter-relations, and morphogenesis, growth and adaption of the skeletal tissues. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B281, 29-72, figs. 1-18, pls. 1-10.

4.      Traquair, R. H. 1878. On the genera Dipterus Sedgw. And Murch., Palaedaphus Van Beneden and De Koninck, Holodus Pander, and Cheirodus M'Coy. Ann. Mag. Nat. His., (5) II, 1-17, pl. III.

5.      Traquair, R. H. 1889. On a new species of Dipterus. Geological Magazine, Decade 3, Vol. 6, 97-99.

6.      Watson, D.M.S.,Gill, E.L. 1922. The structure of certain Palaeozoic Dipnoi. J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 35, 1923 163-216.

7.      Westoll, T. S. 1949. On the evolution of the Dipnoi, in: Genetics, paleontology, and evolution, Ed. Jepson, G. L., Simpson, G. G. and Mayr, E. 121-184, figs. 1-10.

8.      White, E. I. 1966. Presidential address: A little on Lung-fishes. Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 177, 1-10, figs. 1-5, pls. 1, 2. 



11. Moy-Thomas, J. A. 1940. The Devonian fish Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 230B, 391-413, figs. 1-7, pls. 22-25.

12. Sollas, W. J. and Sollas, I. B. J. 1903. An account of the Devonian fish, Palaeospondylus gunni, Traquair. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B 222, 267-294, pls. 16, 17.

13. Traquair, R. H. 1893. A further description of Palaeospondylus gunni, Traquair. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., XII, 87-94, 1 fig., pl. I.

14. Traquair, R. H. 1897. Note on the affinities of Palaeospondylus gunni, Traq., in reply to Bashford Dean, of New York. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 314-7.

15. Thompson Nature

16.  Michael J. Newman & Jan L. den Blaauwen New information on the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus gunni Scottish Journal of Geology, Short Communications, 44, (1), 89-91, 2008

On Palaeozoic fish in general

1.      Agassiz, L. 1844. Monographie des poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge ou Systeme Devonien (Old Red Sandstone) des Iles Britanniques et de Russie. Neuchatel, I-XXXVI, 1-171, pls. 1-33 & A-F.

2.      Ahlberg, P. 1999. Something fishy in the family tree. Nature, 397, 564-565, fig. 1.

3.      Andrews, S. M., Miles, R. S. and Walker, A. D. (Editors). 1977. Problems in Vertebrate Evolution. Linnean Soc., Lond., Academic Press, London, pp. 411.

4.      Dean, B. 1895. Fishes, living and fossil – in part. MacMillan, New York.

5.      Eastman, C. R. 1908. Devonian fishes of Iowa. Iowa Geol. Surv., 18, pp. 386, 41 figs, 16 pl.

6.      Eichwald, E. 1860. Lethaea Rossica ou Paleontologie de la Russie. Stuttgart. In part: Old Red Sandstone fish,  824-843, 1554-1555, pls. LV- LVII (1855).

7.      Finlay, T. M. 1926. The Old Red Sandstone of Shetland. Part I. South-Eastern area. With an account of the fossil fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of the Shetland Islands, by Woodward, A. S. and White, E. I. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh., LIV, 553-572, figs. 1-7, pls. I-III.

8.      Graham-Smith, W. 1978. On the lateral lines and dermal bones in the parietal region of some crossopterygian and dipnoan fishes. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B 282, 41-105, figs. 1-25. Photocopy.9.Janvier, P. 1996. Early Vertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 393.

9.      Jarvik, E. 1960. Theories de l’evolution des vertebres reconsiderees a la lumiere des recentes decouvertes sur les vertebres inferieurs. Masson, Paris, pp. 104, figs. 30.

10. Lankester, E. R. and Traquair, R. H. 1868-1914. The fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Britain (pt. I – The Cephalapidae; pt. II – The Asterolepidae), pp. 130, figs. 1-60, pls. I-XXXI.

11. M'Coy, F. 1848. On some new ichthyolites from the Scotch Old Red Sandstone. Ann. Mag. Nat. His. (2) II, 297-312, 3 figs.

12. M'Coy, F. British Palaeozoic Fossils. In part: Devonian section, 579-605, pls. 2B-2D. Photocopy.

13. Miller, H. 1841. The Old Red Sandstone; Or, New walks in an Old Field. J.Johnstone, Edinburgh.

14. Miller, H. 1849. Footprints of the creator; Or, the Asterolepis of Stromness. Johnstone & Hunter, London.

15. Miller, H. 1858. The cruise of the Betsey/Rambles of a Geologist 1st ed, pp. 486. Thomas Constable & co, Edinburgh

16. Miller, H. 1886. Sketch-book of popular geology. W. P. Nimmo, Hay, & Mitchell, Edinburgh, pp. 356.

17. Moy-Thomas, J. A. and Miles, R. S. 1971. Palaeozoic Fishes. Chapman and Hall, pp. 259.

18. Newberry, J. S. 1889. The Paleozoic fishes of North America. U.S. Geol. Surv. Plates only (53).

19. Pander, C. H. 1860. Uber die saurodipterinen, dendrodonten, glyptolepiden und cheirolepiden des Devonischen systems. Buch. Kaiser. Akad. Wissen. St. Petersburg. 90pp, 17pls.

20. Pander 1848………

21. Saxon, J. 1991. The Fossil Fishes of the North of Scotland. Caithness Books, pp. 49, figs. 35.

22. Traill, T. S. 1841. Notice of the fossil fishes on the Old Red-Sandstone formation of Orkney, particularly of an undescribed species, Diplopterus Agassis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, XV, 89-92.

23. Traquair, R. H. 1880. The history of Scottish fossil ichthyology. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc., CIX, 3-27.

24. Traquair, R. H. 1885. Remarks on biological nomenclature. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc., CXIV, 275-295.

25. Traquair, R. H. 1888. Notes on the nomenclature of fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Great Britain. Geol. Mag., (3) V, 507-517.

26. Traquair, R, H. 1890. On the fossils fishes found at Achanarras quarry, Caithness. Ann Mag. Nat. His., (6) VI, 479-486, 4 figs.

27. Traquair, R. H. 1894. Achanarras revisited. Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edinburgh, XII, 279-286, 1 fig.

28. Traquair, R. H. 1907. [Fossil fishes from Caithness.] Summ. Prog. Geol. Surv. Gt. Britain, 1906, 111.

29. Trewin, N. H. 1976. Correlation of the Achanarras and Sandwick Fish Beds, Middle Old Red Sandstone, Scotland. Scottish Journ. Geol. 12 (3), 205-208, 1 fig.

30. Watson, D.M.S. 1916. Notes on some Palaeozoic fishes. Manchester Memoirs, Vol: lx. (1916), No.2

31. Westoll, T. S. 1937. The Old Red Sandstone fishes of the north of Scotland, particularly of Orkney and Shetland. Proc. Geol. Ass. London, XLVIII, 13-44, fig. 2-11.

32. Westoll, T. S. 1951. The vertebrate-bearing strata of Scotland. Rep. XVIII Int. Geol. Cong., pt. IX, Great Britain, 1948, 5-21.

33. Westoll, T. S. (Ed). 1958. Studies on fossil vertebrates. The Athlone Press, London, pp. 261. Includes papers by White, E. I., Westoll, T. S., Romer, A. S. Rayner, D. H., Parrington, F. R., Hills, E. S., Heintz, A., Gregory, W. K., Colbert, E. H. Brough, J., Swinton, W. E. and de Beer, G.

34. Westoll, T. S. 1979. Devonian fish biostratigraphy, in: The Devonian system, eds. House, M. R., Scrutton, C. T. and Bassett, M. G. Spec. Pap. Palaeontology, 23, 341-353, figs. 1, 2.