debris flows

nivation hollows 

patterned ground

ploughing blocks






Periglacial processes in the Holocene

A restricted range of periglacial processes continues to operate in the Cairngorm Mountains today. The mountain environment is windy and wet, with frequent freeze-thaw cycles to shallow depth. Ballantyne(1996) recognises several groups of active processes related to:

  • Frost action and its effect of rock weathering, small scale patterned ground and solifluction

  • Late-lying snow and nivation

  • Wind action

  • Mass movement on steep debris mantled slopes