Glacial erosion

crag and tail

fjörd or fiord

glacial streamlining

roches moutonnées


Glacial deposition


till sheet


glacial erratic

Meltwater deposition


Meltwater erosion

meltwater channels

Ice Age history

glacial stratigraphy

ice age events

Longyester. Kames and kame terrace deposited by meltwater and draped by glacial till.

Glacial landscapes of East Lothian

Conventionally, glacial landforms are classified according to

  • origin - formed by ice (glacial) or meltwater (glacifluvial) or by erosion or deposition
  • position - relative to the former glacier, including subglacial (under and on the bed), englacial (inside), supraglacial (on top of), marginal (beside) or proglacial (in front of the glacier snout).

East Lothian is a glaciated lowland that provides many classic examples of landforms of both erosion and deposition. The terrain shows a marked streamlining as a result of deep erosion of the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, leaving the hard volcanic rocks upstanding as hills and ridges. The flanks of the Lammermuir Hills show magnificent systems of meltwater channels, often with large accumulations of sand and gravel forming kame-like hills at their mouths.